Survey of Recent Disaster Preparedness Models

1. Urban Earthquake Disaster Risk Index- Davidson and Shah, 1997

The Earthquake Disaster Risk Index (EDRI) is a composite index that allows direct comparison of the relative overall earthquake disaster risk of cities worldwide, and describes the relative contributions of various factors to that overall risk.

2. Environmental Vulnerability Index- South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission

   A vulnerability index for the natural environment, the basis of all human welfare, has been developed by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and their partners. The index was developed through consultation and collaboration with countries, institutions and experts across the globe. This index is designed to be used with economic and social vulnerability indices to provide insights into the processes that can negatively influence the sustainable development of countries.

3. Disaster Risk Index-United Nations

  The pioneering Disaster Risk Index (DRI) Analysis Tool measures the relative vulnerability of countries to three key natural hazards — earthquake, tropical cyclone and flood — and identifies development factors that contribute to risk, and shows in quantitative terms, just how the effects of disasters can be either reduced or exacerbated by policy choices. Our hope is that the tool will both help generate renewed interest in this critical development issue and help bring together stakeholders around more careful and coherent planning to mitigate the impact of future disasters.

4. Hurricane Disaster Risk- Davidson and Lambert

   The Hurricane Disaster Risk Index (HDRI) is a composite index developed to compare the risk of hurricane disaster in U.S. coastal counties. Analogous to a quality of life index, the HDRI was developed to be an easily understandable tool that can be used to compare the relative risk of economic and life loss in different coastal counties in the United States, and to compare the different relative contributions of various factors, e.g., frequency of hurricanes and quality of emergency evacuation plan. The HDRI is specifically intended to support local, state, and national government agencies as they (1) make resource allocation decisions; (2) make high-level planning decisions; and (3) raise public awareness of hurricane risk, its causes, and ways to manage it.

5. Indicators of Disaster Risk and Risk Management- Cardona

   The Risk Management Index brings together a group of indicators that measure a country’s risk management performance. These indicators reflect the organizational, development, capacity and institutional actions taken to reduce vulnerability and losses, to prepare for crisis and to recover efficiently from disasters.

6. Social Flood Vulnerability Index- Tapsell, Penning-Rowsell, Tunstall, and Wilson

   Given an increasing appreciation of the full impacts of floods, from research, Tapsell et al have sought to develop an index which measures the impact that floods could have upon the communities potentially affected. They anticipated that this index would be used in addition to knowledge of the potential flood damage impacts and losses that are more readily understood and modeled within benefit– cost analyses within investment appraisals. They outline here, therefore, the definition and source of the variables used in the calculation of the Flood Hazard Research Centre (FHRC) SFVI, which can be used to predict those areas and populations that are likely to be most severely affected in terms of health and other ‘intangible’ flood impacts.

7. Coastal Resilience Index: A Community Self-Assessment- Emmer, Swann, Schneider, S. Sempier, T. Sempier, Sanchez

   The purpose of this self-assessment is to provide community leaders with a simple and inexpensive method of predicting if their community will reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure after a disaster. Experienced local planners, engineers, floodplain managers or administrators can complete this self-assessment using existing sources of information from their community. The goal is for every community to become highly resilient. The assessment may identify problems the communities should address before the next disaster and where resources should be allocated.

8. Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards- Cutter, Boruff, and Shirley

   County-level socioeconomic and demographic data were used to construct an index of social vulnerability to environmental hazards, called the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for the United States based on 1990 data. Using a factor analytic approach, 42 variables were reduced to 11 independent factors that accounted for about 76 percent of the variance. These factors were placed in an additive model to compute a summary score—the Social Vulnerability Index. There are some distinct spatial patterns in the SoVI, with the most vulnerable counties clustered in metropolitan counties in the east, south Texas, and the Mississippi Delta region.

9.Disaster Resiliency Index – Simpson and Katirai

   The Disaster Resiliency Index (DRi) gives a broad indication of community resilience. Depending upon the nature of the hazard, the index allows the user to apply appropriate weights to various index components and provides a relative standard of resilience from which cross comparisons can be made. This resiliency index is considered a function of a community’s preparedness in a ratio relative to its exposure to a unique set of hazards.